Hospitality Assignment Sample

  1. Communication Styles

Cultivation Theory 

The cultivation theory which is also sometimes known as cultivation analysis or cultivation hypothesis theory, is basically a theory based on communication aspects. This theory was originally composed and proposed by G. Gerber through researches for studying the effects and impacts of media on the lives of human beings, especially the influences of watching TV on the perceptions and ideas of the viewers in their daily lives as well as the nature and ways of influences. This theory basically stated that messages by media are of higher susceptibility to frequent television viewers. Exposure to increasing violence are common to the viewer who are frequent which leads to get affected by Mean World Syndrome. Suggestions of this theory also includes the fact that on basis and in accordance to the already existing attributes in the society, cultivation of attitudes takes place. The media here basically is involved in taking the already existing attributes and representing them to their viewers and audience in different bundled packages. A basic characteristic of the theory includes cultivation of status quo by media as well as television rather of challenging it. It suggests that most of the time, viewers are actually not aware of the extent up to which media is absorbed by them, hence most of the times considering themselves as viewers that are moderate which is in fact not true as they are the viewers that are heavy.

A most often discussed aspect of this theory is what is called “mean and scary world syndrome” which basically is the “mean world syndrome”. In this regard, higher frequency viewers of television and the violence associated with it results in beliefs developed in those viewers that this presently existing world is a far more worse and dangerous place than it basically is. This fictional dangerous world consists of paedophiles, rapists and serial killers that lurks around each and every corners.

The assumptions based on which this theory was formulated are mentioned below:

  • In the culture of America, television are much more influential as compared to other forms and types of mass media as the contents for televisions are produced in masses and also plays significant roles in the culture.
  • Violence and such behaviours are neither cause nor encouraged by television. Rather, beliefs and attitudes of people are shaped in regards of others communities as well as the societies. 
  • The already existing attributes and values in cultures are cultivated by television and media along with reinforcing status que instead of putting challenges to it.
  • Mean World Syndrome can be developed in viewers if they are watching television for more than four hours in a single day.
  • Reality is not reflected by television, instead of which alternate realities are created.

Different factors which influence the degree and levels of cultivation include amount of time television is watched, the present existing environment, age, gender, level and degree of familiarity with situations that are portrayed as well as level of income, ethicality and education of viewers of television (MASS COMMUNICATION THEORY, 2018).

Agenda setting Theory

This theory is basically focused on describing abilities possessed by media for influencing importance and significance that are placed on different factors and topics related to agendas of the public.  The agenda setting theory was proposed by Donald Shaw and Max McCombs in the year 1968. The theory basically attempts for making predictions even though it being a theory based on social science. Audience and viewers are concerned with regarding issues and situations to be of significance when news items are prominently as well as frequently covered. This included comparisons among issues of salience in contents of news with perceptions of public about significance of issues in election for determining the level up to which opinions of public are determined by the media. Many research and studies has highlighted that the decisions made by media for exposing different issues in various countries are based on and correlated with their own opinions and views on different factors such as cultures, economies and politics. Exposures in media are more likely for the countries which possess greater political power. Factors related to Inequality in coverage by media includes money that is spent in regards of militaries and defence purposes, foreign trades, difference in technologies as well as resources for financial sectors.     

Agenda setting is basically established by news media based on concerns of issues that are salient and creating awareness in public. This theory highlights the ways of attempts made by media for influencing their viewers and audience as well as establishing hierarchies of prevalence of news. 

The assumptions based on which the theory of Agenda Setting is in accordance with are as follows:

  • Reality and its aspects are not reflected by the media as well as the press, instead they are concerned with filtering and moulding it to a desired shape.
  • Concentration of media on few certain subjects and issues results in the viewers and public perceiving those same issues to be significant and vital in comparing to other existing issues.     

These statements of assumptions were made by making appropriate measurements of changes in saliences by utilizing means like surveys with coverage of news that are more frequently present.

In agenda setting, mass communication and its role regarding time frame of setting agendas can be considered as a critical and most notable aspect. In addition to this, different potentials for agenda setting exists in different forms of media. A growth in momentum has been witnessed upon analyzation of relationships among new virtual spaces and media that is traditional in regards of perspectives of agenda-setting. Application and scope of agenda setting has expanded and extended through investigations of issues which also includes medical news, foreign news, advertising as well as history. This theory of setting agenda is intended to be applied in sectors of news media as well as in certain situations also to be applied to different other areas relating to messages and media that are being transmitted to the viewers and audiences (UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE, 2017).

  1. Influence of theories in areas of hospitability 

Face Negotiation Theory

This faced negotiation theory can be best utilized in hospitability sectors for successfully handling and managing conflicts resulting from differences in cultures of employees in a workspace. The theory can also be effectively used for studying all different types and forms of interpersonal relationships in workspaces as well as to what context they can be considered as applicable across different cultures. This can be stated as the theory basically explains the influence of differences of cultural aspects and post that maintenance of a diversified workspace having aspects in accordance to the employees’ respective cultures. This can be again stated as a vital aspect that is responsible for influencing the behaviours of a person is the culture he or she belongs to. Styles of conflicts that can be addressed through this theory varies with the differences in cultures from which employees belong in a workspace. This theory assists for identifying two different aspects and dimensions based on which styles of conflicts can be successfully classified. These are efforts made by individuals belonging to different cultures for maintaining a face in order to successfully preserve their own faces in individualistic cultures and efforts for maintenance of a face by individuals in societies that are collectivistic just for sake of the concerned society. In accordance with these identified dimensions, different types of conflicts in workspaces that can be identified and effectively addressed. These are as follows:

  • Domination

Individualistic measures and approaches for making certain decisions by control or domination.

  • Avoiding

Collectivistic approaches utilized to stay far ways from situations involving issues and conflict.

  • Obliging

Collectivistic approaches undertaken for quitting or giving up.

  • Compromising

Individualistic approaches for negotiating and come together to a specific solution

  • Integrating

Individualistic approaches for working together for the purpose of reaching a certain suitable solution (Communication Theory, 2018). 

Cultivation Theory

A significant aspect of the cultivation theory is television and its different roles which has many applications in hospitability sectors. This basically would assist the organizations working in the hospitability industry for creating awareness of their brand and the services that are offered by them all across the globe. This can be accomplished through effective advertising. This aspect of advertising has had major impacts for resulting in enhance levels and degrees of competitions in hospitality business and industry. The concerned organizations are also enabled for incorporating different innovations in their practices as well as services which has had a huge impact on the ways in which trips and stays in hotels are booked by the people. Studies has highlighted that online sites focused in traveling are responsible for a revenue of about 73 billion dollars in regards of the organizations and businesses operating in the hospitality industry. Advertisements and its different proliferation in different websites concerned with booking tickets and stays for trips has resulted in possibilities of dictating of price in customers to such a degree that they will for paying for travels, flights, rooms in hotels and other activities related to hospitality sector. In addition to this, restaurants are also making use of different aspects of this theory and outlets of advertising as a medium for letting their consumers and customers know about various designed special promotions that are offered by them. Hence, it can be seen that the theory and its different aspects for advertising their brands and services that are offered by them to the viewers and audiences, especially on televisions (Lewis, 2018).

Agenda-Setting Theory

This agenda setting theory can be effectively utilized in hospitality sectors and industries for the purpose of addressing professionals engaged in public relations. Professionals in hospitality business and firms that are concerned with public relations and its effective maintenance possesses abilities for influencing interests of the general public on behalf of their clients by making efficient use of the agenda setting theory and its different aspects. All journalists are heavily dependent and relies on professionals of public relations as sources of provision of data and information for building an agenda of media. Researches and studies conducted throughout the years has also implied that about 44% of journalists and news media are highly influenced by practitioners of public relations. News publications containing highly valued data and information for utilization in the agenda are provided each and every time press conferences are hosted or press releases are called for by public relations practitioners for their clients. 

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Professionals and practitioners of public relations are also concerned with understanding roles and responsibilities of gatekeepers in regards of agenda setting. This is because gatekeepers are responsible for deciding the content the media have to put in to the concerned agenda. Hence, professionals and practitioners related to public relations are benefitted by having good and effective business relationships with different journalists as well as editors. This assists them for acquiring the required necessary data and information. Hence, it can be seen that the theory of agenda setting is effectively utilized in hospitality for effective management of public relations and its different aspects (Baird, 2018).

  1. Best theory for greater organizational performance

Post through analysis of all the three theories based on communication above, it can be concluded that the best theory that is most suitable for enhancement of performances in hospitality organizations is the face negotiation theory. This faced negotiation theory can be best utilized in hospitability sectors for successfully handling and managing conflicts resulting from differences in cultures of employees in a workspace. The theory can also be effectively used for studying all different types and forms of interpersonal relationships in workspaces as well as to what context they can be considered as applicable across different cultures. This theory is based on explaining the styles for resolution of conflicts between different existing cultures through examination of the aspect of “face”. This term basically represents the self-image of an individual that is protected. Many researchers has stated that an individual’s culture is responsible for leading to types and forms of face maintenance that again leads to different types and forms of management of various conflicts. Individuals and persons from cultures of higher context tends for focusing on face giving, protection of other persons’ reputations as well as striving focused on achieving inclusion. Individuals and persons from cultures of lower context tends for employment of face restorations, defence of concerns that are self-faced and providing signals for necessities of autonomy. As a result of this, people from cultures of higher contact are more likely to be employ compromising, obliging and different styles for management of conflicts. In contrast to this, people from cultures of lower context are concerned with preferring dominating as well as integrating different styles for management of conflicts.   

This face negotiation theory is responsible for addressing effectively comparisons based in individual levels of management of conflicts and is also focused on understanding the relevant actions. Different aspects of instruments utilized for research and studies are framed for effective measurement of overall measures and approaches including blaming in situations of issues, complying with requests and defending one’s actions. This theory is also concerned with providing foundations to infer communications that are employed by persons and individuals although direct measurement of communication does not take place. For further understanding roles and responsibilities of communication in workspaces that are intercultural in nature, consideration of this theory of face negotiation is primarily and majorly focused on communications that are expressed and also enables for analyzation of necessary speech that is manifested. This criteria is fulfilled by the theory of designing the messages. 

Findings and outcomes from various research supports the theory of face negotiating and also demonstrates that different people and individuals from different cultures are responsible for exhibiting tendencies that can be utilized for predicted styles of management of conflicts. Hence, it can be concluded that this face negotiation theory is actually a very significant tool for navigating settings in a workspace that is intercultural and equipping workers and employees for early intervention of conflicts. Hence, the theory can be effectively utilized for enhancing overall performance levels in businesses and organizations operating in the hospitality sector or industry (Ng, 2017).


Baird, J. (2018). Agenda Setting Theory. Retrieved from

Communication Theory. (2018). Face-Negotiation Theory. Retrieved from

Lewis, J. (2018). Ways the Media Has Impacted the Hospitality Industry. Retrieved from

MASS COMMUNICATION THEORY. (2018). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from

Ng, R. (2017). Intercultural Communication in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry: A Study of Message Design Logic Across Two Cultures. Retrieved from OF TWENTE. (2017). AGENDA SETTING THEORY. Retrieved from

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